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Chronic Renal Failure is a disease, whi- ch also known by the name of acute kidney failure. It is a fatal disease and should be treated on emergency basis. There is a rapid loss of renal function resulting from the damage of the kidneys, which takes place a period of months or years. The disea- se can be divided into five stages. 

While undergoing each stage, the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) progressively becomes low and de- teriorates. The loss of renal function leads to the retention of the waste products - nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous -, which normally gets disposed off through the excretion by the kidney. This accumulation of the waste products leads to other metabolic symptoms like metabolic acidosis, which is acidification of the blood, hyper- kalaemia, which is, heightened pota-ssium levels, disturbance in the body fluid balance. Apart from affecting the kidney this disease also effects other organ systems.


Most common causes of the Chronic Renal Failure are, diabetes, infla-mmation, high blood pressure, hyper -tension, glomerulonephritis, long-term infection, blockage, polycystic kidney disease and reaction from certain medicines. The risk of getti-ng afflicted with CRF increases after reaching the age of 60. Technically, the causes for CRF are categorized under three sub-heads: pre-renal, renal and post-renal.

Hemolysis (Due to which hemo-globin is released subsequently damaging the tubules may also be-come a cause under the renal head. Injury, stimulants and drugs may also induce the damage to kidneys. Post-renal causes deal with the obst-ruction in the urinary tract which mi-ght happen due to medication, beni-gn prostatic hypertrophy or prostra-te cancer, kidney stones, abdominal malignancy or obstructed urinary catheter.


Initially, the only way to detect the CRF might be by checking the in-crease in serum certain or protein in urine. As the disease progresses and the kidney loses its function, various symptoms can be noticed like increase in blood pressure due to fluid overload and production of the vasoactive hormones, hypertension or congestive heart failure, azotemia due to urea accumulation among others.

As the disease progresses one can also notice the formation of Uremic frost (crystallization of urea on skin while sweating). People suffering from CRF may notice that they are passing Urine more often, especially at night. Some patients may also develop symptoms like itchy skin, nausea, impotence (in men) and fluid retention.

A doctor may run a series of tests to check for the CRF. The most general check done is via testing the creatine or blood nitrogen. The results would be remarkably high in an ill patient. The doctor may also make a series of measurements of renal function in order to offer comparison and to diagnose this disease. Blood tests and urine tests are also done in order to confirm the CRF. People suffering from CRF are most likely to further develop diseases like arthrosclero-sis and cardio-vascular diseases. 


Main goal of the treatment should be to reduce or halt the progression of the CRF further. The key is to control the blood pressure and to treat the original disease. The use of Angio-tensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) is suggested, as the progression of the disease.

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